It has been my fate 'to disturb the peace of the world.'” - Sigmund Freud

A good relation to ourselves is a condition for love, tolerance and wisdom towards others... if we have become able, deep in our unconscious minds, to clear our feelings to some extent towards our parents of grievances, and have forgiven them for the frustrations we had to bear, the we can be a peace with ourselves and are able to love others in the true sense of the word.” - Melanie Klein

The first thing to say about the unconscious... is what Freud says about it: It consists of thoughts... what is essential in repression... is not that affect is suppressed, but that it is displaced and misrecognizable.” - Jacques Lacan

The particular activity of psychoanalysis is 'the scientific pursuit of the psychic unconscious'... Psychoanalysis is 'a psychology of repression.'” - Sigmund Freud

Although love-relationships in adult live are founded upon early emotional situations in connection with parents, brothers and sisters, the new relationships are not necessarily mere repetitions of early family situations. Unconscious memories, feelings and phantasies enter into the new love-relationship or friendship in quite disguised ways.” - Melanie Klein

Just because people ask you for something doesn't mean that's what they really want you to give them... Desire is the crux of the entire economy we deal with in psychoanalysis. If we fail to take it into account, we are necessarily led to adopt as our only guide what is symbolized by the term 'reality,' a reality existing in a social contract... the very foundation of interhuman discourse is misunderstanding.” - Jacques Lacan

Feelings of guilt and the drive to make reparation are intimately bound up with the emotion of love. If, however, the early conflict between love and hate has not been satisfactorily dealt with, of if guilt is too strong, this may lead to a turning away from loved people or even to a rejection of them.” - Melanie Klein

The Oedipus Complex is justifiably regarded as the kernel of neuroses.” - Sigmund Freud

In the development of mankind as a whole, just as in individuals, love alone acts as the civilizing factor in the sense that it brings a change from egoism to altruism.” - Sigmund Freud

What the subject finds is not what motivated his attempt at refinding... the crux of desire is essentially found in impossibilities.” - Jacques Lacan

It is clear that emotions first appear in the early relation of the child to his mother's breasts, and that they are experienced fundamentally in connection with the desired person. It is necessary to go back to the mental life of the baby in order to study the interaction of all the various forces which go to build up this most complex of all human emotions which we call love.” - Melanie Klein

I can assure you that, through the supposition of unconscious mental processes, a critical new direction in the world and in science is open to us.” - Sigmund Freud

Introducing SAPA

Psychoanalysis is a method of enquiry into the human psyche. This method underpins several theoretical models of human functioning and treatments of suffering. Psychoanalysis was first developed in the last years of the 19th century by Sigmund Freud, working in Vienna and later in London. Although Freud's work provides the foundation for all psychoanalytical practice, during the 20th century the discipline blossomed into several divergent but mutually enriching schools. Many, but not all, of the practitioners, who employ psychoanalytical methods in these diverse ways, are members of the International Psychoanalytical Association (IPA), which was founded by Freud and his colleagues between 1908 and 1910. 


Founded in 2009, the South African Psychoanalytical Association (SAPA) is the first organization on the African continent to be affiliated with the IPA. Currently, SAPA has the status of a “Study Group” within the IPA, and its functioning is overseen by a “Sponsoring Committee.” At an appropriate juncture, SAPA will become a “Provisional Society” and later a “Component Society” of the IPA. 


The main objectives of SAPA are:

  • to facilitate communication among psychoanalysts and psychoanalytical organizations; to educate psychoanalysts and the public, by means of appropriate research, study, publications, scientific congresses and other meetings; and otherwise to foster the development of psychoanalytical knowledge and mental health;
  • to affiliate with the IPA;
  • to apply the essential professional and ethical criteria for selecting, training and qualifying psychoanalysts, subject to the authority of the IPA and to the principles established by the IPA;
  • to inform the public via publications, media and governmental and non-governmental organisations, of the purposes, capacities, and uses of psychoanalysis as a means of promoting and preserving individual and social well-being and health;
  • to advance the psychoanalytical profession and the professional needs and interests of psychoanalysts.


Toward these ends, SAPA began in 2010 to accept individuals for training in psychoanalysis, focusing these educational activities in Cape Town and Johannesburg.