It has been my fate 'to disturb the peace of the world.'” - Sigmund Freud

A good relation to ourselves is a condition for love, tolerance and wisdom towards others... if we have become able, deep in our unconscious minds, to clear our feelings to some extent towards our parents of grievances, and have forgiven them for the frustrations we had to bear, the we can be a peace with ourselves and are able to love others in the true sense of the word.” - Melanie Klein

The first thing to say about the unconscious... is what Freud says about it: It consists of thoughts... what is essential in repression... is not that affect is suppressed, but that it is displaced and misrecognizable.” - Jacques Lacan

The particular activity of psychoanalysis is 'the scientific pursuit of the psychic unconscious'... Psychoanalysis is 'a psychology of repression.'” - Sigmund Freud

Although love-relationships in adult live are founded upon early emotional situations in connection with parents, brothers and sisters, the new relationships are not necessarily mere repetitions of early family situations. Unconscious memories, feelings and phantasies enter into the new love-relationship or friendship in quite disguised ways.” - Melanie Klein

Just because people ask you for something doesn't mean that's what they really want you to give them... Desire is the crux of the entire economy we deal with in psychoanalysis. If we fail to take it into account, we are necessarily led to adopt as our only guide what is symbolized by the term 'reality,' a reality existing in a social contract... the very foundation of interhuman discourse is misunderstanding.” - Jacques Lacan

Feelings of guilt and the drive to make reparation are intimately bound up with the emotion of love. If, however, the early conflict between love and hate has not been satisfactorily dealt with, of if guilt is too strong, this may lead to a turning away from loved people or even to a rejection of them.” - Melanie Klein

The Oedipus Complex is justifiably regarded as the kernel of neuroses.” - Sigmund Freud

In the development of mankind as a whole, just as in individuals, love alone acts as the civilizing factor in the sense that it brings a change from egoism to altruism.” - Sigmund Freud

What the subject finds is not what motivated his attempt at refinding... the crux of desire is essentially found in impossibilities.” - Jacques Lacan

It is clear that emotions first appear in the early relation of the child to his mother's breasts, and that they are experienced fundamentally in connection with the desired person. It is necessary to go back to the mental life of the baby in order to study the interaction of all the various forces which go to build up this most complex of all human emotions which we call love.” - Melanie Klein

I can assure you that, through the supposition of unconscious mental processes, a critical new direction in the world and in science is open to us.” - Sigmund Freud

To be an effective agent for peace, you have to seek not only to change the community and the world. What is more difficult is to change yourself before you seek to change others.

– Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela,
25 May 2000

About the organisations


Following a long history in South Africa of an active interest in psychoanalytic thinking the desire to formalize and link in with international standards led to the formation of SAPI and SAPA.


The South African Psychoanalytical Initiative (SAPI) was established in 2004 as a platform organisation to enable the establishment of an IPA accredited psychoanalytic training in South Africa. SAPI provides valued teaching and guidance in the application of psychoanalytic thinking by means of clinical seminars for practitioners using psychoanalytic principles. The monies generated from these seminars pay for the financial outlay in establishing an IPA accredited psychoanalytic training with South Africa and the broader psychoanalytic community benefits from the availability of psychoanalysts within the society.


Founded in 2009, the South African Psychoanalytical Association (SAPA) is the first organization on the African continent to be offering clinical and theoretical training in psychoanalysis, under the auspices of the International Psychoanalytical Association, which was founded by Sigmund Freud in 1908. We are proud to have the first “homegrown” fully qualified psychoanalysts to have graduated through local training in 2016.


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